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Change Management

It would require using different theories of change management for managing the change better.  Change itself is an ongoing spiral of change as recognized by Nadler. Therefore, Nadler・s five stage model of the change process is used for the base framework, with other models blended into it for more effective results.

1.      Stage 1: Recognizing the change imperative

It is obvious that the police force is not proactive to the external changes for its bureaucracy and limitations.  Due to its structural power, it is likely that most changes are triggered from the top management.  It is therefore important for the joint effort of the top management and senior officers to lead the police force for any breakthrough through constantly challenge the status quo by scanning the environments and benchmarking processes.

2.      Stage 2: Developing a shared direction

This stage is similar to .unfreezing・ of Lewin・s model.  Routines (division of labour, sets of rules, clear hierarchy, centralized control and decision-making) are likely to become deeply embedded and some are taken-for-granted (legitimacy).  The development of a shared direction needs to reshape the executive team, and all the way down to the hierarchy to create a need for change and remove the resistance.  That means the top management has to open up and accepts a diversity of opinions.  Communication is very important in this stage to deliver consistent and coherent message to all parties in order to knit together a broader coalition of support for the change.

3.      Stage 3: Implementing change

This stage is similar to .moving・ of Lewin・s model.  Top management must have a plan of where and how they wish to make changes.


The police force needs to position itself so that the top management know where (how much) they wish to make changes.  Using Strebel・s model of change, the police force is positioned in Figure 1. 

The change force is moderate because the police force is already behind the game of its other players.  Thus, the direction for the top management is less clear and they appear to be more reactive.  Since there are some internal triggers for change from some of the senior officers, it means that the police force can be opened up to change.  Under these circumstances, Strebel suggests to introduce process re-engineering for the effective change.  It encourages teamwork and an initial analysis of the work process; and ultimately leads to the adoption of changes and improved processes.  It is also the desire of the top management for quality and efficient service through the improved work processes.


.How・ relates to the management style to be used to achieve the position.  Dunphy and Stace suggest that management style has to vary change strategies to achieve optimum fit with the changing environment.  They argue that for large-scale change like corporate transformation in the case involves the organization as a whole that would require a choice between charismatic transformation or dictatorial transformation.  It is quite often to adopt a dictatorial leadership for easier control and remove oppositions. 

However, George and Jones argue that where time pressures may be less intense as in the case, it may be possible to be more collaborative and consultative.  Hence, charismatic leadership is more appropriate as this management style concerns more about employees, such as the behaviour of higher and lower ranks, open communication for implementation of changes, etc.

4.      Stage 4: Consolidating change

This stage is similar to .refreezing・ of Lewin・s model.  It is important to align all the processes and structures across the police force to fit the new situation.  For example, performance evaluation and the behaviour of the senior officers must meet the requirements of the new structure.

5.      Stage 5: Sustaining change

Nadler reminds that continued commitment to communication and information is crucial to the successful sustaining of change.  Taffinder emphasizes that exploitation of transformation breakthrough, ongoing behaviour consistency, reinforcing change culture, improvement of organization capabilities, and exposure to external pressures and competition would help an organization to a continuous change spiral.

However, Pettigrew argues that sustaining change also requires a complex and lengthy process from bottom-up.  A change in the process re-engineering in the police force is not a range of separate things.  It involves the change of other interrelated factors such as human resources, power, technology, structure, etc, which needs complementary and coherent effort between these different types of changes and aspects of the context.

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